Census Records and Land Value Taxation
(Volkszählung und Hufenklassifikation)
- The Bishopric of Cammin (later known as Kreis Fürstentum
which was divided into Kreise Kolberg-Körlin, Köslin and Bublitz)
took a census in 1635 and 1648. It is published in the
Pomeranian Culture and Genealogy, page 83. (Pomeranian
Customs and Genealogy. Germantown, Wisconsin: Pommerscher
Verein Freistadt, 1997).
- Hufenklassifikation (Land Value Taxation). A farm census was taken in 1717
for Hinterpommern. Some data from this census for Kreis Greifenburg
is published in Pomeranian Culture and Genealogy, page
79. (Pomeranian Customs and Genealogy. Germantown,
Wisconsin: Pommerscher Verein Freistadt, 1997). The Landesarchiv
Greifswald has the surviving copies of this census. It only
covers Hinterpommern since Brandenburg controlled only that area
of Pomerania during those years.
- Die Hufenklassifikation in
Hinterpommern von 1717/19. Microfilm and digitization from
ten volumes of records found in the Landesarchiv (state
archives) in Greifswald. was done by the genealogical and
historical association Pommerscher Greif in 2008. The database
currently (June 2010) contains about 16,000 names from about
1,200 villages, and can be accessed by family name, location,
county, and introduction. In 1716, Major General Peter von
Blankensee, together with the Pomeranian Councilor Friedrich
Wilhelm von Grumbkow, submitted a proposal to the Prussian King
Frederick William I to reform the taxation system. The basis of
the proposal was to use the economic net yield for land value
taxation. With this approach the tax unit changed from the land
unit (Haken-) Hufe to the monetary unit Rechtstaler
and to Landhufen (equals two Hakenhufen). The
objective of the tax system was to levy 40% of the net yield as
a tax. In Farther Pomerania all personal taxes would be
abandoned with this system. The land value taxation was carried
out in Farther Pomerania between February 1717 and October 1717.
The new tax came into effect on January 1, 1718. In April 1718
von Blankensee was assigned to carry out land value taxation in
Neumark on the same basis. This taxation was not completed until
1719, and in July 1719 classification works were extended to the
duchy of Kammin. For the survey, the commission ordered lords,
peasants, small farmers, day laborers, the administrators of the
manors, and the pastors to go to a central place within the
district. The survey itself was done systematically by using a
questionnaire of 27 questions. Questions referred to yields of
farming and husbandry, the farmers' investments in resources,
conditions of production, as well as the farmers' obligations
owed to the lords and tributes to them.
- Fehlberg, Hauke. "Hufenklassifikation: The Land Value
Taxation of Von Blankensee in Farther Pomerania as a Data Source
for Genealogical Research." Die Pommerschen Leute 33, 2
(Summer 2010): 21-24.
Gehrmann, Rolf. German Census-Taking Before 1871.
Article by the Max-Planck- Institute explains the development
of census taking throughout Germany with graphics for a quick
overview of how each German state handled the issue.
- Landwirtschaftliches Addreßbuch der Provinz Pommern.
Is a directory of Pomeranian agricultural properties in 1939
(available from Family History Library, 1573108, item 5). It is
arranged by Kreis and gives the village, property owner,
address, size and description of land livestock. Not included
are the Kreise of Arnswalde, Deutsch Krone, Flatow, Friedeberg,
Netzekreis, Schlochau, and Schneidemühl. It is not really a
census, but can be used as an alternative. No city residents,
trades people, or professionals are included.
- von Schulmann, Werner. Einwohnerverzeichnisse von Hinterpommern nach den Steuererbebungen von 1655 und 1666. A census was taken in 1655 and 1666 to give Brandenburg a basis for taxing the Pomeranians. Information given in the census is the town and name of the head of the house. It is indexed by town name and surname. It only covers Hinterpommern since Brandenburg controlled only that area of Pomerania during those years.