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U.S. Census Records

The Federal Census was taken every ten years starting in 1790. The 1890 census was destroyed following a fire, except for some schedules. Personal information for Federal Census Population Schedules is not available to the public until 72 years after the year the census was made. Limited information from more recent census is available to the person named in the census, his/her heirs, or legal representative.

Population Schedules

The 1790 through 1840 censuses have less information than later ones. They list only the head of household and the number of people in the household, classed by sex and age ranges.

The 1850-1880 federal census also included a mortality schedule, which listed all the people who died during the year preceding the census date. Some of these mortality schedules are included in the census themselves at the end of each township; however, separate copies of the mortality schedules were kept with the director of the Census. These separate listings have now been returned to depositories in the respective states.

The population schedules for 1850-1880 also have additional information in the population schedules. The population schedule for 1850 lists the name of every free person in the household, plus each person's age, sex, color, occupation, value of real estate, and place of birth (usually state, territory or foreign country; rarely a county or town). The 1850 census also included a notes area where the census taker could note such items whether the couple was married in the past year, or attended school in the last year, or was an adult who could read or write, or was "deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict."

In the 1860 census an additional question was added about the value of personal estate (items other than real estate). The 1870 census added questions asking if the person's father or mother was of foreign birth (but no question about where); if born or married in the past year, the month of the event, whether a male person was a citizen, and whether a person couldn't vote. The 1850 through 1870 censuses do not indicate what the relationship is between the head of household and others listed for that household.

The 1880 population census added the relationship of those listed to the head of household and the place of birth of father and mother.

Most of the 1890 population census was destroyed in a fire at the National Archives.

The 1900 through 1930 censuses include information similar to the late 1800s, and added some additional questions. The 1900 census asked for the month and year of birth; each person's marital status, and if married, for how many years; how many children a woman had and how many were living; year of immigration; number of years in the U.S.; naturalization status; address; whether the persons owns or rents home, and if owned, if free of mortgage; for people who own a farm, their number on the farm schedule; and whether the person can speak English, read, or write.

The 1910 census added these new questions: whether able to speak English, and if not, language spoken; occupation; general nature of the establishment in which the person works; whether an employer, employee, or working on own account; if an employee, whether out of work in the past year, and if so, for how many months; whether the person had served in the Union or Confederate Army or Navy; and whether blind.

The 1920 census new questions include: if naturalized, year of naturalization; and if the person or the person's parent(s) were of foreign birth, place of birth and mother tongue, including mother tongue of the parents.

The 1930 census asked if the person owned a radio; if the family lived on a farm; age at first marriage; place of birth (country if foreign); and whether a veteran of U.S. military, and if so, what war or expedition.

Nonpopulation Schedules

1820, 1850-1880: Manufacturing (1820 and 1880) or Industry (1850-1870) Schedules. In 1820, 1850 and 1860 these schedules reported the owner's name; the type of business or product; the amount of capital invested; the quantities, kinds, and value of raw materials used; the quantities, kinds, and value of product produced annually; the kind of power machinery used; the average number of men and women employed; the average monthly cost of male and female wages; and the annual product: quantities, kinds, and values. More data were added in 1870 and 1880. The 1880 supplemental schedule collected information for specific industries: leather tanning and curing; boot and shoemaking; brickyards and tile works; lumber and saw mills; paper mills; flour and grist mills; cheese, butter, and condensed milk factories; salt producers; slaughtering and meat packing plants; agricultural implement factories; coal mines; and quarries. Small manufacturing operations producing less than $500 worth of goods were not included on these schedules.

1850-1880: Agricultural Schedules. These schedules collected information for each farm, including nurseries and orchards, but excluding small vegetables gardens, that included: name of owner, agent, or manager; number of improved and unimproved acres; cash value of the farm, farming implements and machinery, and livestock; number of horses, mules, "milch cows," working oxen, other cattle, sheep, and swine; amount of wheat, rye, Indian corn, oats, rice, tobacco, cotton, wool, peas and beans, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, barley, buckwheat, orchard products, wine, butter, cheese, hay, clover seed, other grass seeds, hops, hemp, flax, flaxseed, silk cocoons, maple sugar, cane sugar, molasses, beeswax and honey produced during the preceding year; value of animals slaughtered during the past year; and value of home manufactures. The 1880 schedule also asked for additional details, such as the amount of acreage used for each kind of crop, the number of poultry, and the number of eggs produced. In 1850 and 1860 small farms that produced less than $100 worth of products annually were not included in these surveys. In 1870 and 1880 farms of less than three acres or which produced less than $500 worth of products were not included.

1850-1880 Mortality Schedules. Mortality schedules included data about people who died in the preceding year to the census. For each person, the following information is listed: name; age; sex; color; whether single, married, widowed or divorced; state or country of birth, month of death, occupation, cause of death, and number of days ill. In 1880 the birthplace parents was added.

1880 Dependent, Delinquent and Defective Class Schedules. The persons listed are those in poorhouses, orphanages, jails, prisons, mental hospitals, and other institutions. It includes "insane inhabitants," "idiots," (mentally retarded or mentally challenged), deaf mutes, the blind, homeless children, people in prison, paupers, and indigent "inhabitants of institutions, poor-houses, or asylums, or boarded at public expense in private homes." The person's city/town of residence is consistent between the schedules. There are specific questions for the various afflictions. The listing for homeless children asks whether the child's parents are deceased. The listing for those in prison includes information on whether the person is awaiting execution, the alleged offense, and the sentence.

1890 Union Veterans and Widows of Union Veterans of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. Much of these census was destroyed in the National Archives fire. Part exists for Kentucky and for states that follow alphabetically after Kentucky. Included is the name of the union veteran or veteran's widow; veteran's rank; name of his company; name of regiment or vessel; dates of enlistment and discharge; length of service in years, months, and days; veteran's post office address; nature of disability, if any; and remarks. This is a good source to find information about an individual's military unit.

1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules. Names the slave owners, but usually not the slaves. After the slave owner's name, there is a physical description (age, sex, and color - black or mulatto) of each of his slaves.

1850-1870, and 1885 Social Statistics Schedules. Does not name individuals.

Information Contained in Census Records:

1790: Name of head of family, number of free white males 16 and up, free white males under 16, free white females; all other free persons, number of slaves.

1800: Name of head of family, number of free white males and females under 10, 10 and under 16, 16 and under 26, under 45, 45 and over, number of slaves.

1810: Same as 1800.

1820: Same as 1800, also male and female slaves and free colored persons under 14, 14 and under 26, 26 and under 45, 45 and up. Foreigners not naturalized.

1830: Name of head of family, number of free white males and females in 5 year age groups to 20, 10 year age groups from 20 to 100 and 100 and older, number of slaves and free colored in 6 age groups, foreigners.

1840: Same as 1830, also number of pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Service.

1850: First census to list all persons in the household, sex, color for each person, value of real estate, occupation for all males over 15, place of birth, if married within year; if attended school, if able to read and write for all over 20.

1860: Same as 1850 and value of Personal Property.

1870: Same as 1860, also if parents foreign born, if able to read and write for all over 10.

1880: Name, relationship to head of family, sex, race, age, marital status, married within year, occupation, number of months unemployed, if sick what illness, attended school, able to read and write, place of birth of person and parents. Soundex (Index) only for households with children 10 and under.

1885: States of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Nebraska, Florida, North and South Dakota.

1890: Over 99% destroyed by fire in 1921.

1900: Name, race, sex, month and year of birth, age at last birthday, marital status, number of children born to wife of that marriage and number living, place of birth of eprson and parents, citizenship if foreign born, year of emigration, occupation, can read, write or speak English; home or farm, owned or rented.

1910: Same as 1900 except for month and year of birth, also Civil War Veteran.

1920: Same as 1910 and year of naturalization.

1930: Same as 1920 and age at first marriage.

  • African-American Censuses Online - Search African-American censuses in Alabama counties.
  • Age Search Service, 1930-1990 censuses. U.S. Census Bureau.
  • American FactFinder. Database of census information from the U.S. Census Bureau.
  • Ancestry Daily News. Articles by various individuals on the census.
  • Includes scanned copies of all U.S. federal population schedules from1790 through 1930. All censuses except 1910 have an every name index. The 1910 census is head of household only at this time. Also included are the 1850 to 1880 mortality census schedules, the 1850 and 1860 slave schedules, and the remaining 1890 veterans schedule. This is a subscription product.
  • Bohme, Frederick G., 200 Years of U.S. Census Taking: Population and Housing Questions, 1790-1990. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
  • Burroughs, Tony. "The Original Soundex Instructions." National Genealogical Society Quarterly, 89, 4 (December 2001) pp. 287-298.
  • "Census Enumeration District Descriptions, 1830-1890 and 1910-1950." National Archives microfilm, T-1224, 146 rolls.
  • "Census Enumeration District Descriptions, 1900." National Archives microfilm, T-1210, 10 rolls.
  • Census Finder. A directory of census records.
  • Census Maps. Check out the county boundaries for each census year.

  • Census of Population and Housing. US Census Bureau.  Federal census statistical publications.

  • Census Tools. Electronic spreadsheets for archiving federal, state and international census data.
  • Censuses  - Search one of the largest collection of US censuses maintained by US GenWeb in three ways: by name, by year of census or by state.
  • - Search one of the largest collections of online censuses;  over 5,000 censuses mainly for the U.S. but also some European countries.
  • Charter, Stephen M. and Floyd E. Hebdon, Compilers and Ray Matthews, Editor. U.S. Census Mortality Schedule Register. 2nd edition. Salt Lake City, Utah: Family History Library, 1992.

  • Clues in Census Records, 1850-1930.
  • Converting 1920 Census EDs to 1930 Census EDs
  • Crawford-Oppenheimer, Christine. "Locating Your Ancestors in the U.S. Federal Census." Everton's Genealogical Helper. 60, 2 (March/April 2006), p. 11-20.
  • Crawford-Oppenheimer, Christine. Long Distance Genealogy: Researching Your Family History from Home. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 2000. Chapter 8, "Censuses."
     Davidson, Katherine H. and Charlotte M. Ashby, compilers. Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: NARS, 1964.

  • Direct Me NYC: 1940. This experimental website features freshly digitized 1940 telephone directories from the five boroughs of New York City, which, combined with powerful search tools (built atop Stephen Morse and Joel Weintraub's One-Step data service), enable patrons to convert residential street addresses of 1940s New Yorkers into precise census enumeration districts, permitting informed navigation of the Census records.
  • Dollarhide, William. The Census Book: A Genealogist's Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes. Bountiful, Utah: Heritage Quest, 1999. Includes a CD with printable census recording forms.

  • Dollarhide, William. Census Substitutes & State Census Records: An Annotated Bibliography of Published Names Lists for All 50 U.S. States and State Censuses for 37 States. 2 volumes. Bountiful, Utah: Family Roots Publishing Co., 2008. An excellent resource for tracking down ancestors prior to the taking of the first federal census in 1790 and also for looking for ancestors between federal census years or for those who do not appear on the federal census records.
  • Dollarhide, William. "Obsolete Names and Abolished Counties Reflected in the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920 and All U.S. Counties Created or Abolished Since the 1920 Census." Everton's Genealogical Helper  61, II (March/April 2007): 28-33.
  • Eleventh Census of the United States. 11th Census, 1890. (microform) Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1948. Schedules enumerating Union veterans and widows of Union veterans of the Civil War.
  • Else, Willis I. The Complete Soundex Guide. Apollo, Pennsylvania: Closson Press, 2002.
  • An index and transcription of the entire 1880 census compiled by the Latter-day Saints Church. Is available free online, and can also be purchased on 56 CD-ROMs.
  • Federal Census Records.
  • Federal Population and Mortality Schedules 1790-1010 in the National Archives and States. Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1986. A guide to the microfilm numbers.
  • Frequently Occurring First Names and Surnames From the 1990 Census. U.S. Census Bureau.
  • Generating American Soundex Codes.   Generating American and Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex Codes in One Step by Steve P. Morse.
  • Greene, Evarts B. and Virginia D. Harrington. American Population before the Federal Census of 1790. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004, 1932.

  • Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American Genealogy. 3rd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2000.
  • Guide to the Soundex System. The Soundex is a system designed by the Works Project Administration to phonetically index surnames
  • Hatten, Ruth Land. "The 'Forgotten' Census of 1880: Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes," National Genealogical Society Quarterly, vol. 80 (March 1992): 57-69.
  • Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1790. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907-1908 (and reprints). Transcription of the 1790 census.
  • Heritage Quest. No. 76, Jul/Aug 1998. Many articles devoted to the census: U.S. Federal, State and some Canadian.
  • Heritage Quest Online. This database service includes scanned copies of all U.S. federal population schedules from 1790 through 1930. Currently the censuses from 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1860, 1870, 1890, 1900, 1910, and 1920 are indexed. 1930 is in the progress. Indexes include only the head of household and people in the household whose surname is different from that of the head. Subscriptions are limited to libraries and other organizations. The scanned censuses can also be purchased from Heritage Quest on CD-Rom or microfilm.
  • Hinckley, Kathleen. Your Guide to the Federal Census. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 2002.
  • Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850-1990. U.S. Census Bureau.
  • How to Use Soundex for United States Census Records. From Houston Public Library.

  • Instructions to Enumerators: 1930 U.S. Census.
  • Kemp, Thomas Jay. The American Census Handbook. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2001.
  • Kemp, Thomas Jay. The 1930 Census: A Reference and Research Guide. Ann Arbor, Michigan: ProQuest Information and Learning, 2003.
  • A Key to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census Identifying Enumeration District Numbers and Microfilm Numbers of the National Archives and the Genealogical Library. 2nd edition. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1986. Good for identifying which microfilm reel to order for counties having multi-reels.
  • Lainhart, Ann S.  State Census Records. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1992.
  • Library of Michigan 1870 Census Index. The Michigan 1870 Census Index is an alphabetical list of the family names in each household residing in every county and township in Michigan in 1870.
  • Maryland State Archives Census Indexes. Created and maintained by the Maryland state archives, this site allows searches of four different historical Maryland censuses.
  • National Archives Census Microfilm Rental Program. Census and Soundex Indexes (1880, 1900, partial 1910, 1920, and partial 1930) microfilm can be rented from NARA.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. The 1790-1890 Federal Population Censuses, Revised edition. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund Board, 2001.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. 1900 Federal Population Census: A Catalog of Microfilm Copies of the schedules. Revised edition. Washington, D.C. National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1996. A guide to the microfilm numbers.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. 1910 Federal Population Census: A Catalog of Microfilm Copies of the schedules. Revised edtion.Washington, D.C. National Archives Trust Fund Board, 2000. A guide to the microfilm numbers.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. 1920 Federal Population Census: A Catalog of National Archives Microfilm. Washington, D.C. National Archives trust Fund Board, 1998. A guide to the microfilm numbers.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. 1930 Federal Population Census. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund Board, 2002.
  • National Genealogical Society. Using Census Records in Genealogical Research. Online study course.
  • Nonpopulation Census Records at NARA.
  • One-Step Web Pages, by Steven Morse. A more effective search engine to access immigration records, census, and vital records, and some Jewish databases.
  • Periodical Source Index (PERSI). This index provides access to published transcriptions of censuses for particular areas in genealogical periodicals. Copies of articles can be ordered from the Allen County Public Library Foundation in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The online version of PERSI is available through Heritage Quest and a CD-ROM version from Yearly copies of the indexes are available in some libraries.
  • Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. U.S. Census Bureau.
  • Religious Censuses of 1906-1936. From the Census Bureau. Some portions of these census records have been posted online, such as excerpts from the 1906 Religious Census for African American Religious Bodies.
  • RootsWeb's Guide to Tracing Family Trees - No. 9: Census Records, Soundex, Indexes and  Finding Aids. Written and compiled by Julia M. Case, Myra Vanderpool Gormley & Rhonda McClure.
  • Szucs, Loretto Dennis, and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. 3rd edition. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2006.
  • Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Matthew Wright. Finding Answers in U.S. Census Records. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 2002. Includes extraction forms for 1790-1930.
  • Searching Census Records. Alternate ways to search for census records from Steve P. Morse.
  • Selected Historical Census Data, 1790-2000. U.S. Census Bureau.
  • S-K Publications. Publishes scans of censuses in books and on CD-ROM. The books include surname indexes, but the CDs aren't indexed.
  • Soundex Code Generator. National Archives site that converts surnames to Soundex codes.
  • Census Records. Digitized census records, including the entire 1790 US census plus portions of the 1800 through 1860 enumerations. The record images are scans of National Archives microfilm, and the links to them are arranged by the microfilm roll numbers and frame. Unfortunately, you can't search the record content, but the links do provide county names to point in the right direction.
  • Spanish Surname List for the 1990's. U.S. Census Bureau.
  • Stemmons, John D., compiler. U.S. Census Compendium. Logan, Utah: Everton Publishers, 1973. A directory of known census records, tax lists, poll lists, petitions and directories which can be used as a census.
  • Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Matthew Wright. Finding Answers in U.S. Census Records. Orem, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2002. Packed with research tips and strategies.
  • Thorndale, William. "Census Indexes and Spelling Variants." [Association of Professional Genealogists] APG Newsletter 4,5 (May 1982) pp. 6-9. Reprinted in The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy, edited by Arlene Eakle and Johni Cerny. Salt Lake City, 1984, pp. 17-20.
  • Thorndale, William and William Dollarhide. Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2005, 1992. The number-one tool in U.S. census research. Shows all U.S. county boundaries from 1790 to 1920. Includes nearly 400 maps.
  • U.S. Census Bureau - Genealogy Information
  • U.S. Census Bureau Homepage.
  • U. S. Census Bureau. Age Search Service. Instructions for obtaining information from closed census records (1930 to the present).
  • U. S. Census Bureau: State & County QuickFacts.  Gives demographic snapshots of states, counties, and cities.
  • U.S. Census Bureau Statistical Abstracts. Statistical Abstract data present here ranges from our most recent edition to the historical abstracts compiled throughout the decades. Some of the data were scanned as an effort to make historical abstract information available to the public. The display of data will continue as historical records become available.
  • United States. Census Office. Sixth Census, 1840. A Census of Pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Services; with Their Names, Ages, and Places of Residence, As Returned by the Marshals of the Several Judicial Districts, under the Act for Taking the Sixth Census, in 1840. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1967.
  • US Federal Censuses Online 1790-1930- Search over 425 million names in the following US Federal censuses 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 and 1920. (From - paid membership)
  • U.S. Gazetteer enables place name searches based on the 1990 census.
  • US GenWeb Census Project - Search one of the largest collection of US censuses maintained by US GenWeb in three ways: by name, by year of census or by state.
  • The US GenWeb Census Project. Started in February, 1997, The USGenWeb Census Project is an all-volunteer project to transcribe census records in a standard format in order to make them available to genealogical researchers on the Internet. Has different coverage than next listing.
  • The US GenWeb Census Project. Information for researchers and volunteers. Has different coverage than previous listing.
  • U. S. National Archives. Clues in Census Records, 1850-1920. Description of some of the clues that can be found in census records that will help you find other records about the same individual.
  • U. S. National Archives. How to Use NARA’s Census Microfilm Catalogs. Instructions for using National Archives catalogs of microfilmed census records and Soundex indexes.
  • U. S. National Archives. How to Use NARA’s Census Microfilm Catalogs. Instructions for using National Archives catalogs of microfilmed census records and Soundex indexes.
  • U. S. National Archives. National Archives Microfilm Rental Program. Instructions for borrowing census microfilm directly or through a library.
  • U. S. National Archives. 1790-1890 Federal Population Censuses. Online version of the National Archives microfilm catalog with roll numbers for the federal population censuses from 1790 through 1880, the special 1890 census of Union veterans and widows, and the 1880 Soundex.
  • U. S. National Archives. 1900 Federal Population Census.  Online version of the National Archives microfilm catalog with roll numbers for the 1900 population census and Soundex.
  • U. S. National Archives. 1910 Federal Population Census. Online version of the National Archives microfilm catalog with roll numbers for the 1910 population census and Soundex.
  • U. S. National Archives. 1920 Federal Population Census.  Online version of the National Archives microfilm catalog with roll numbers for the 1920 population census and Soundex.
  • U. S. National Archives. 1930 Federal Population Census. Online version of the National Archives microfilm catalog with roll numbers for the 1920 population census and Soundex.
  • U. S. National Archives. The Soundex Indexing System. Instructions for using the Soundex indexing system.
  • Using the Soundex System. From "Along those Lines..." by George G. Morgan.
  • Vallentine, John F. "Effective Use of Census Indexes in Locating People." Genealogical Journal, 4, 2 (June 1975) pp. 51-58.
  • Year 2000 Census. U.S. Census Bureau.

Local Census Records

  • Census Online. 1850 Census, Greene Co., Tennessee. Transcription of the 1850 federal census of Greene County, Tennessee.
  • Dollarhide, William. New York State Censuses & Substitutes: An Annotated Bibliography of State Censuses, Census Substitutes, and Selected Name Lists in Print, on Microform, or Online; with County Boundary Maps, 1683-1915; and State Census Examples and extraction Forms, 1825-1925. Bountiful, Utah: Heritage Creations, 2005.
  • Dollarhide, William. "State Census Records and Census Substitutes." A series of articles in Genealogy Bulletin, 2004-2005. Covers Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi (#61, Feb. 2004); Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont (#64, Apr. 2004); Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania (#63, June 2004); Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia (#64, Aug. 2004); Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin (#65, Oct. 2004); Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Dakota Territory, North Dakota, and South Dakota (#66, Dec. 2004); Texas and Oklahoma (#67, Feb. 2005); California, Nevada, Alaska, and Hawaii (#68, apr. 2005); Arizona and New Mexico (#69, June 2005); Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (#70, Aug. 2005)
  • 1885 State Censuses. In 1885 the federal government offered states some financial incentives to take a state census that year. Give states or territories took up the offer and have state censuses available for that year. "Schedules of the Colorado State Census of 1885." National Archives microfilm, M-158, 8 rolls; "Schedules of the Florida State Census of 1885." National Archives microfilm, M-845, 13 rolls; "Schedules of the Nebraska State Census of 1885." National Archives microfilm, M-352, 56 rolls; "Schedules of the New Mexico Territory Census of 1885." National Archives microfilm, M-846, 6 rolls. The schedules of the 1885 Dakota Territory census are divided, the appropriate portions being held by the State Historical Societies of North and South Dakota. In addition to the federally-supported 1885 state censuses, other states took censuses without federal.
  • NCGenWeb Project. Washington County. 1800 Federal Census of Washington County, North Carolina. Extracted data from the 1800 federal census of Washington County, North Carolina.
  • ILGenWeb Project. Jackson County. 1820 Jackson Co., IL Federal Census. Extracted data from the 1820 federal census of Jackson County, Illinois.
  • LAGenWeb Project. St. Bernard Parish. 1830 United States Census, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana. Extracted data from the 1830 federal census of St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.
  • Lainhart, Ann S. State Census Records. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1992.
  • Library of Congress. Census Library Project. State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population Taken After the Year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States. Prepared by Henry J. Dubester. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1948.
  • Transcript of the Grant County, Kentucky 1860 Census. Transcription of the 1860 federal census of Grant County, Kentucky.
  • USGenWeb FTP Site. Colorado. Boulder County. 1880 Census, Magnolia, Boulder County, Colorado. Extracted data from the 1880 federal census of Magnolia, Boulder County, Colorado.
  • USGenWeb FTP Site. Virginia. Buchanan County. 1900 U.S. Census, Buchanan County, Virginia. Extracted data from part of the 1900 federal census of Buchanan County, Virginia.
  • USGenWeb FTP Site. Missouri. Carter County. 1910 Census, Kelly Township, Carter County, Missouri. Extracted data from the 1910 federal census of Kelly Township, Carter County, Missouri.
  • Vallentine, John F. "State and Territories Census Records in the United States." Genealogical Journal 2, 4 (December 1973) pp. 133-139.


  • The following National Archives microfilm catalogs can be ordered from the National Archives and Records Administration:

    The 1790-1890 Federal Population Censuses. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1997.

    The 1900 Federal Population Census. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1996.

    The 1910 Federal Population Census. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1996.

    The 1920 Federal Population Census. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992.

    Immigrant & Passenger Arrivals. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1991.

    Military Service Records. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1985.

Census Extraction Forms

  • Ancestor Detective, LLC. Clooz version 2. Software contains templates for all United Stztes federal population and non-population censuses.
  • Free downloadable census extraction forms for 1790-1930. Requires Adobe Reader.
  • Census Tools Spreadsheets. Downloadable spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel and PDF format for useful census (and other) research worksheets.
  • Croom, Emily Anne. Unpuzzling Your Past. 4th edition. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 2001. Contains extraction forms for 1790-1930 and a census checklist.
  • Freed downloadable census extraction forms for 1790-1920. These are in Adobe Reader PDF format.