Family History and Genealogy Services

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Genealogy Resources

Ethnic Resources


  • Thernstrom, Stephan, editor. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1980.

Acadian, Franco American and French Canadian

  • Acadian Genealogy Home Page
  • American-Canadian Genealogical Society    "Leader in French Canadian, Franco American, and Acadian Genealogy."
  • French Canadian-Acadian Genealogists of Wisconsin. Our objective is to foster and encourage interest and research in French Canadian and Acadian genealogy, heritage, and culture.
  • French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut. The French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut is dedicated to collecting, preserving and disseminating genealogical and historical information about our ancestors who settled in Quebec and Acadia and their descendants. Our focus is on the genealogy of people of French-Canadian and Acadian heritage who settled in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York and throughout New England, though we also have information about other areas of the United States and Canada.
  • French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan. The French Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan was founded in 1980 as an educational, historical, cultural, and genealogical non-profit organization. It seeks to make people aware of the rich culture and history of French Canadians in North America, with special emphasis on those who explored and settled in Michigan.
  • Maine Franco-American Genealogical Society. Has cemetery records, obituary entries, and family files on French-Canadian immigrants.
  • Northern New York Genealogy Organization. Northern New York Genealogy is dedicated to genealogy research, family history, and historical structures of Jefferson County, Lewis County, and St. Lawrence County, which comprise Northern New York. Portions of surrounding counties, such as Oswego County (Central New York) are included as information becomes available. Many came down into the state of New York from Canada.
  • Le Petit Canada Project. Tells the story of some of the French-Canadian families who came to the town and area of Rockville, Illinois in the 1840s. There were fourteen families who formed "Le Petit Canada."
  • Rhode Island Genealogical Society. The Rhode Island Genealogical Society was begun in 1975 by a small group of individuals interested specifically in Rhode Island Families and the problems inherent in tracing them. Since then, we have grown to include about 900 members from across the United States, Canada and Mexico, all working to uncover our Rhode Island roots.
  • Southern California Genealogical Society. The society recently became involved in the French-Canadian DNA Project by helping to establish the DNA signature of the earliest ancestor of their French-Canadian families.
  • Vermont French-Canadian Society.


  • African American Cemeteries Online. A database of African American cemetery interments from 30 US states.  
  • African-American Censuses Online.  Search African-American censuses in Alabama counties.
  • African American History and Culture. National Parks Service.
  • African American Lifelines. How-to for beginners by Cliff Murray.

  • Africana Heritage Project. Our mission is to rediscover precious records that document the names and lives of former slaves, freed persons and their descendants, and share those records on this free Internet site.
  • Africans in America, "Westward Expansion." PBS.
  • Afro-American Genealogical Research. From the Library of Congress.
  • Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society.
  • Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy: 1719-1820 . This website provides a searchable database for African-Americans from the Louisiana area.
  • Bah, Char McCargo. "Starting Your African American Research." NGS NewsMagazine 33, no. 4 (October-December 2007): 20-23.
  • Black Genealogical or Historical Societies in the U.S., Canada and the Caribbean.
  • Blockson, Charles L. African American-Black Genealogy. Black Classic Press, 1977. Reprinted 1991.  Addresses distinct and unique challenges facing the researcher of African American genealogies. Written by an African American historian and genealogist. Where to start, the sources to use, and the problems and surprises you may find along the way are discussed.
  • Burroughs, Tony. Black Roots: A Beginner's Guide to Tracing the African American Family Tree. New York: Fireside Book, 2001.
  • Cowan, Thomas Dale and Jack Maguire. Timelines of African-American History: 500 Years of Black Achievement. Berkley, 1994.
  • Dickenson, Richard B. Edited and indexed by Varney R. Nell. African American-Virginia- Entitled! Free Papers in Appalachia Concerning… Entitled! Free Papers in Appalachia Concerning Antebellum Freeborn Negroes and Emancipated Blacks of Montgomery County, Virginia.  National Genealogical Society, 1981. Freeborn Negroes and emancipated blacks identified from 1830-1860 censuses, and 1867 censuses and 1866 Marriage Register of Montgomery Co., Virginia.
  • Fears, Mary L. Jackson. African American-Slave Ancestral Research, It's Something Else. Heritage Books, 1995. The author makes a unique contribution to genealogical research in this thoroughly documented study of her family roots. She gives hints and guidelines on how to search for slave ancestors and their slave owners. This book helps explain the information to be found in libraries, courthouses, cemeteries, and other archives.
  • Fears, Mary L. Jackson. Slave Ancestral Research, It's Something Else. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1995.
  • Free African Americans of North Carolina, Virginia, and South Carolina
    from the Colonial Period to About 1820. Fifth Edition. Two Volumes. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006, 2005. Reconstructs the history of the free African-American communities of Virginia and the Carolinas by looking at the history of their families.
  • Gates, Henry Louis Jr. Finding Oprah's Roots: Finding Your Own. Crown Publishing Co., 2007.
  • Griffler, Keith P. Frontier Lines of Freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2004.
  • Gutman, Herbert. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1924. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976. The classic from an historical perspective.

  • Hager, Ruth Ann (Abels). Dred & Harriet Scott: Their Family Story. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis County Library, 2010. Account of the lives of Dred and Harriet Scott and their daughters.

  • Lewis, Catherine M. and J. Richard Lewis. Women and Slavery in America: A Documentary History. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2011.

  • Manegold, C.S. Ten Hills Farm: The Forgotten History of Slavery in the North. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
  • Middleton, Earl M. with Joy W. Barnes. Knowing Who I Am: A Black Entrepreneur's Struggle and Success in the American South. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2008. This biography recounts the life of Earl M. Middleton, who served as a Tuskegee Airman in World War II, became a barber and restaurant owner, and then a successful real estate and insurance salesman, all before being elected to serve in the S.C. General Assembly.
  • National Archives Trust Fund Board. Black Studies: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington: NATFB, 1996.
  • Newman, Debra L. Black History: A Guide to Civilian Records in the National Archives. Washington: NATFB, 1984.

  • New York Historical Society. Manuscript Collections Related to Slavery. The library of the New-York Historical Society holds among its many resources a substantial collection of manuscript materials documenting American slavery and the slave trade in the Atlantic world. The fourteen collections on this web site are among the most important of these manuscript collections. They consist of diaries, account books, letter books, ships’ logs, indentures, bills of sale, personal papers, and records of institutions. Some of the highlights of these collections include the records of the New York Manumission Society and the African Free School, the diaries and correspondence of English abolitionists Granville Sharp and John Clarkson, the papers of the Boston anti-slavery activist Lysander Spooner, the records of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, the draft of Charles Sumner’s famous speech The Anti-Slavery Enterprise, and an account book kept by the slave trading firm Bolton, Dickens & Co.
  • Nordmann, Christopher A. "Substitutes for the 1890 Census." NGS NewsMagazine 33, no. 4 (October-December 2007): 23-26.
  • Pinnick, Timothy Nathan. "Slave Era Insurance Registry." NGS NewsMagazine 33, no. 4 (October-December 2007): 27-31.

  • Prechtel-Kluskens, Claire. "New Orleans Slave Manifests, 1807-60." NGS Magazine 34, 4 (October-December 2008): 41-45.
  • Rogers, Helen Hoban. Freedom & Slavery Documents in the District of Columbia, Recorder of Deeds Office: Bills of Sale, Certificates of Freedom, Certificates of Slavery, Emancipations, Manumissions, Vol. I, 1792-1806. Baltimore: Gateway Press, 2007. This is the first in a planned three-volume set of freedom and slavery documents from the District of Columbia.
  • Rose, James, and Alice Eichholz. Black Genesis A Resource Book for African-American Genealogy. 2nd edition. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 2004. Annotated bibliography.

  • Smith, Franklin Carter and Emily Anne Croom. A Genealogist's Guide to Discovering Your African-American Ancestors. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2003, 2008 reprint.

  • Snyder, Christina. Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
  • Streets, David H. Slave Genealogy: A Research Guide with Case Studies. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1986. Guide to tracing slaves.

  • Taylor, Frazine K. Researching African American Genealogy in Alabama: A Resource Guide. Montgomery, AL: New South Books, 2008. The first part of the book surveys some records useful in tracing African Americans in Alabama, and the second covers some county records for each Alabama county. In five appendixes the author provides information on state slave laws, Alabama military discharge papers, the African American Civilian Conservation Corps, and the Freedmen's Bureau in Alabama.

  • Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. Allows users to experience information on nearly 35,000 slave voyages through a clean and well-designed interface.
  • United States Colored Troops Database of over 230,000 names is searchable by surname.

  • VanderVelde, Lea. Mrs. Dred Scott: A Life on Slavery's Frontier. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Woodtor, Dee Parmer.  Finding a Place Called Home: A Guide to African-American Genealogy and Historical Identity. Rev. edition. New York: Random House, 1999.
  • "In addition to given or first names, slaves could also have surnames distinctive from those of their owners, although contemporary slave owners were usually unaware of these surnames. Normally, slaves chose a surname which represented or identified the first slave owner or the earliest born-in Africa who came to North America as a slave. The surname would then be handed down over the generations to help track relations and lineage. Though many slaves had their own surnames many did not. After the end of slavery, those who already possessed surnames revealed them, while others chose a surname for the first time. Those whose family had been owned by members of the same family for several generations might have the last owner within the same family. ... There is no way to tell what percentage of those with surnames before emancipation changed them. Those changing their names or choosing a name for the first time could use many different reasons as the basis for their choice. During and immediately after the war, government agencies often insisted that slaves have surnames to enroll in their programs or receive government benefits. Thus, expediency might dictate a quick choice; others claimed names based upon the name's association with either relatives or former owners, to assert individuality, or because of the sound or prestige of the name. Some persons changed names several times to avoid the possibility of re-enslavement

    (Reference: DeWitt S. Dykes Jr., "Slave Naming Practices", in Paula F. Byers, ed., African American Genealogical Sourcebook (Detroit: Gale Research, 1995), 12.

    "Some slaves took surnames before the Civil War ended, while others waited until they began establishing themselves as free citizens. Many slaves took the surname of their last owner or their father who might have been a white slave owner or overseer, a deceased slave, or a slave sold to another owner several years prior to the Emancipation. Hundreds of slaves families took the name of a prominent American, a local political figure, or the given name of the father of the family. It wasn't uncommon for freed slaves to be known by several surnames, making a final choice years after Emancipation. (Ref: Chris Nordman, "Basic Genealogical Research Methods and Their Application to African Americans", in Paula F. Byers, ed,, African American Genealogical Sourcebook, 19).



  • Avakian, Linda L. Armenian Immigrants: Boston (1891-1901), New York (1880-1897). Camden, Maine: Picton Press, 1996.


  • Hall, Nick Vine. Tracing Your Family History in Australia. 3rd edition. Mount Eliza, Australia: N. Vine Hall, 2002.


  • Goethals, Jozef J. Searching for Flemish (Belgian) Ancestors. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2007.



  • Jerin, Robert. "What's In a Surname? A Study of Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian Surnames." NGS NewsMagazine 33, 1 (January/February/March 2007): 24-27.


  • Provides searches of census and other data for Irish, British, and Scottish genealogical research.



  • Croatia in English. This site is for English-speaking people who have an interest in Croatia - and especially for people of Croatian descent who were born into other cultures and who are now trying to learn more about their ethnic roots. The focus is primarily genealogy, but there is also some information on translation, travel, customs, and encouragement to visit the homeland.
  • Genealogy in Croatia. A good website for links and basic information.
  • Jerin, Robert. "What's In a Surname? A Study of Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian Surnames." NGS NewsMagazine 33, 1 (January/February/March 2007): 24-27.


  • Baca, Leo. Czech Immigration Passenger Lists. Various Ports (1847-1871). 4 volumes. Richardson, Texas: 1983-1991.
  • Czech & Slovak American Genealogy Society of America - Bohemian, Moravian, Slovakian, Silesian & Ruthenian heritage.
  • Czech Research Outline. Sections on Czech history, vocabulary and language, gazetteers, maps, records types (church, land, military, migration documents) conducting research through Czech archives, Internet research, etc.


  • Christiansen, P.N. The Danish Settlement at Nasonville, Wood County, Wisconsin. 1961.

  • Danish Emigrant Archives. Has passenger lists which were kept by the Commissioner of the Copenhagen Police. These lists include the name of the emigrant, age, origin, destination, and date of departure. Emigrants listed also include those who departed from ports outside of Denmark.

  • Mathiasen, Ronnie Bille, compiler.  2 Bille slaegter fra Frejlev pa Lolland = 2 Bille Family's [i.e. families] from the Village Frejlev on the Island of Lollan in Denmark. 2004.

  • Smith, Frank and Finn A. Thomsen. Genealogical Guidebook & Atlas of Denmark. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center, 1998.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. The Beginner's Guide to Danish Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center, 1998.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. Scandinavian Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center. 1993.


  • Bailey, Rosalie Fellows. Dutch Systems in Family Naming, New York-New Jersey. Washington, D.C.: National Genealogical Society, 1965, 1999.
  • GenLias - Civil Register. The information in Genlias is taken directly from the Civil Register, the most important Dutch source for genealogical research. Since 1811 the most importatn events in the life of every person resident in the Netherlands - birth, marriage and death - have been systematically recorded. Marriage records from all provinces are currently being entered into the system. After that most of the participating archives will start entering records of birth and death.
  • Kelly, Arthur C. Names, Names, & More Names: Locating Your Dutch Ancestors in Colonial America. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, Inc., 1999.
  • Swierenga, Robert. Dutch Immigrants in the U.S. Ship Passenger Manifests (1820-1880). 2 volumes. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Research, 1983.


  • Beginning Genealogical Research for England and Wales. By Mark Howells.
  • Bockstruck, Lloyd de Witt. Bounty and Donation Land Grants in British Colonial America. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2007. This book is an alphabetical annotated index to the approximately 6,500 soldiers and sailors who received land in the American colonies from the British government.
  • Herber, Mark D. Ancestral Trails The Complete Guide to British Genealogy and Family History. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2000.
  • Herber, Mark D. Ancestral Trails: The Complete Guide to British Genealogy and Family History. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006.
  • Irvine, Sherry. Your English Ancestry: A Guide for North Americans. Revised edtion. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1998.

  • Kolehmainen, John Ilmari and George W. hill. Haven in the Woods: The Story of Finns in Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1951.
  • Milner, Paul and Linda Jonas. A Genealogist's Guide to Discovering Your English Ancestors: How to Find and Record Your Unique Heritage. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 2000.


  • Choquette, Margarita.  Beginner's Guide to Finnish Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center, 1985.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. Scandinavian Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center. 1993.

  • Vincent, Timothy Laitila. Finnish Genealogical Research. New Brighton, Minnesota: Finnish Americana, 1994.



  • Hispanic Genealogy Crossroads
  • Platt, Lyman D. Hispanic Surnames. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997.
  • Putney-Beers, Henry. Spanish and Mexican Records of the American Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1979.
  • Ryskamp, George R. Finding Your Hispanic Roots. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997.
  • Spanish Surname List for the 1990's. U.S. Census Bureau.


  • Boston Pilot Missing Friends Advertisements. More than 31,438 records with a searchable database of advertisements from October 1831 through October 1921 of people looking for "lost" friends and relatives who had emigrated from Ireland to the U.S. The records reveal details about the missing person's life.

  • Campbell, R.G. Scotch-Irish Family Research Made Simple. Munroe Falls, Ohio: Summit Publications, 1982.

  • Collins, E.J. Irish Family Research Made Simple. Munroe Falls, Ohio: Summit Publications, 1985.

  • DeGrazia, Laura Murphy and Diane Fitzpatrick Haberstroh, compilers. Irish Relatives and Friends: From "Information Wanted" Ads in the Irish-American, 1850-1871. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2001.
  • Dobson, David. Irish Emigrants in North America [1775-1825] Part One, Part Two, and Part Three. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 1994, 1995, 2004 reprint.
  • Dobson, David. Irish Emigrants in North America [1775-1825]. Part Four and Part Five. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 1998, 1999, 2004 reprint.
  • Dobson, David. Irish Emigrants to North America [1670-1830] Part Six. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 2003.

  • Ellis, Eilish. Emigrants from Ireland, 1847-1852: State-aided Emigration Schemes from Crown Estates in Ireland. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1993.
  • Grenham, John. Tracing Your Irish Ancestors. 3rd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006.
  • Harris, Ruth-Ann and Donald M. Jacobs, and Emer O'Keefe. The Search for Missing Friends: Irish Immigrant Advertisements Placed in the Boston Pilot. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1989-96.
  • Information Wanted - "Missing Friends" - An Irish database. Boston College has posted this database of newspaper advertisements for Irish immigrants that were published in the Boston "Pilot" from October 1831 through October 1921. The advertisements were paid for by persons looking for family and friends who lost contact with each other.
  • Irish Ancestors. From the Irish Times.
  • Irish Ancestral Research Association. Links to Sites for Irish Research and Other Information.
  • Irish Emigration Database (Dunbrody). This database is compiled directly from the original Ship’s Passenger Manifests. It records Irish, English, Scottish, and Welsh immigrants arriving at the main US ports. For the port of New York, the database covers the years between 1846 and 1890. For Boston, Baltimore, New Orleans, and Philadelphia the database covers only the famine years between 1846 and 1851. Access to the database is free through this website. Printouts are available for a fee.

  • Irish Genealogy. Irish Genealogy Ltd has been established to co-ordinate the Irish Genealogical Project, a unique undertaking that helps you find answers to the questions you have about your Irish roots.
  • Irish Genealogy Databases. From I Dream of Genealogy.
  • Irish Research News. Current happenings in the Irish family history community.
  • Irish Roots. Gateway to the home pages of the heritage/genealogy centres in Ireland and Northern Ireland.
  • Irvine, Sherry and Nora M. Hickey. Going to Ireland: A Genealogical Researcher's Guide. Ancestry Ireland, 1998.
  • A Little Bit of Ireland. Celtic Cousins.

  • McKenna, Erin. A Students Guide to Irish American Genealogy. Phoenix, Arizona: Oryx Press, 1996.

  • Miller, Kirby A., editor. Irish Immigrants in the Land of Canaan: Letters and Memoirs from Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1675-1815. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Mitchell, Brian. A New Genealogical Atlas of Ireland. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002.

  • Mitchell, Brian. Pocket Guide to Irish Genealogy. 3rd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 2008.
  • Provides searches of census and other data for Irish, British, and Scottish genealogical research.

  • Ouimette, David S. Finding Your Irish Ancestors: A Beginner's Guide. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2005. This illustrated volume discusses how to get started with Irish research, what types of records exist, and where to search. A glossary of terms used in Irish family history, a bibliography, and an index round out the book.

  • United States, Famine Irish Passenger Index, 1846-1851. Records for passengers who arrived at the Port of New York during the Irish Famine 1846-1851. Created by the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies, Center for Immigration Research. FamilySearch.


  • Carmack, Sharon DeBartolo.  Italian-American Family History: A Guide to Researching and Writing About Your Heritage. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997.

  • Cole, Trafford. Italian Genealogical Records: How to Use Italian Civil, Ecclesiastical & Other Records in Family History Research. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1995.
  • Colleta, John Philip.  Finding Italian Roots: The Complete Guide for Americans. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2003.

  • Fucilla, Joseph Guerin. Our Italian Surnames.  Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2003, 1949.
  • Glazier, Ira A. Italians to America: Lists of Passengers Arriving at U.S. Ports (1880-1899). 8 volumes. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1992.

  • Nelson, Lynn. Genealogist's Guide to Discovering Your Italian Ancestors: How to Find and Record Your Unique Heritage.  Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 1997.
  • POINT (Pursuing Our Italian Names Together). Supports Italian research.


  • An Introduction to Jewish Genealogy in Manitoba.

  • Center for Jewish History. The Center for Jewish History is one of the foremost Jewish research and cultural institutions in the world, having served over one million people in more than 100 countries. It is home to five partner organizations—American Jewish Historical Society, American Sephardi Federation, Leo Baeck Institute, Yeshiva University Museum and YIVO Institute for Jewish Research—whose collections total more than 500,000 volumes and 100 million documents and include thousands of pieces of artwork, textiles, ritual objects, recordings, films and photographs. Taken as a whole, the collections span more than 600 years of history and comprise the largest repository of the modern Jewish experience outside of Israel. At the Center, the history of the Jewish people is illuminated through scholarship and cultural programming, exhibitions and symposia, lectures and performances.

  • Hungarian Jewish Roots

  • Jewish Cemetery Association of Massachusetts. There are 209 Jewish cemeteries in Massachusetts; JCAM currently owns and operates 101 of these Jewish cemeteries. As a service, we are providing maps and directions to all 209 Jewish cemeteries. Database of over 50,000 Jewish names in the Jewish cemeteries. Results will shows the name, burial location, cemetery name, street name and date of death.
  • Jewish Gen - JewishGen®, Inc. is the primary internet source connecting researchers of Jewish genealogy worldwide.  Its most popular components are the JewishGen Discussion Group, the JewishGen Family Finder (a database of 350,000 surnames and towns), the comprehensive directory of InfoFiles, ShtetLinks for over 200 communities, and a variety of databases such as the ShtetlSeeker and Jewish Records Indexing-Poland.  JewishGen's online Family Tree of the Jewish People contains data on more than three million people.
  • Jewish Genealogy Class from GenClass

  • Jewish Web Index

  • JTA News Service
  • Kurzweil, Arthur. From Generation to Generation. New York: Harper Collins, 1994.

  • Kurzweil, Arthur. From Generation to Generation: How to Trace Your Jewish Genealogy and Personal History. Updated Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004. 367 pages.
  • Kurzweil, Arthur, and Miriam Weiner. The Encyclopedia of Jewish Genealogy: Sources of Jewish Genealogical Information in the United States and Canada. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, 1997.
  • Mokotoff, Gary. How to Document Victims and Locate Survivors of the Holocaust. Teaneck, New Jersey: Avotaynu, 1996. Also lists published Yizkor books by town.
  • Mokotoff, Gary, and Sallyann Amdur Sack. Where Once We Walked: A Guide to the Jewish Communities Destroyed in the Holocaust. Teaneck, New Jersey: Avotaynu, 1991. A gazetteer of 21,000 Central and eastern European localities.
  • Muggenthaler, Cornelia. "Holocaust Research and Restitution of Nazi-looted Property." Association of Professional Genealogists Quarterly  22, 1 (March 2007): 25-28.

  • Name Adoption and Other Lists (German). During the first decades of the 19th century Jews were forced by law to take civil names. The following lists will help you to jump back into the 18th century to search for your ancestors. The lists were found more or less by chance while searching different archives.
  • Paulin, Gladys Friedman. "Keeping the Memory: Sources for Jewish Death Records." NGS NewsMagazine 33, 1 (January/February/March 2007):15-18.

  • Rottenberg, Dan. Finding Our Fathers: A Guidebook to Jewish Genealogy. (New York: Random House, 1977). 401 pages. [Reprints: Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1986, 1995, 1998. ISBN 0-8063-1151-7]
  • Sack, Sallyann Amdur and Gary Mokotoff. Avotaynu Guide to Jewish Genealogy. Bergenfield, New Jersey: Avotaynu, 2004. This book is also very helpful if you are researching any eastern European ethnic group.
  • Schleifer, Jay. A Student's Guide to Jewish American Genealogy. Greenwood Publishing, 1996.

  • SomethingJewish
  • Stern, Malcolm H. Americans of Jewish Descent: A Compendium of Genealogy. New York: Ktav Pub. House, 1971, 1960.
  • Stern, Malcolm H. Finding Our Fathers: A Guidebook to Jewish Genealogy. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1994.
  • Stern, Malcolm H. First American Jewish Families: 600 Genealogies, 1654-1888. 3rd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Ottenheimer Publishers, 1991.
  • Stern, Malcolm H. Tracing Your Jewish Roots. Cincinnati, Ohio: American Jewish Archives on the Cincinnati Campus of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 1977.
  • Tracing the Tribe Blog. Tracing The Tribe is filled with resources, tools, and insights on Jewish genealogy.


  • Weiner, Miriam. Jewish Roots in Poland: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories. New York: YIVO, 1998.
  • Weiner, Miriam. Jewish Roots in Ukraine and Moldova: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories. Clifton, New Jersey: Routes to Roots Foundation, 1999.
  • Zubatsky, David S., and Irwin M. Berent.  Jewish Genealogy: A Sourcebook of Family Histories and Genealogies. Teaneck, New Jersey: Avotaynu, 1996. A finding aid.


  • Owen, Robert E. Luxembourgers in the New World. 2 volumes. Luxembourg: Editions-Reliures Schortgen, 1987.


Native American

American Indians are among the best-documented cultural groups in the United States, making it possible to prove direct ties to one of more than 500 tribal nations.

  • Baker, Jack D. and David Keith Hampton. Old Cherokee Families, Notes of Dr. Emmett Starr, Volumes 1 and 2. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Baker Publishing Co., 1988.
  • Bell, George Morrison, Sr., Genealogy of Old and New Cherokee Indian Families. Bartlesville, Oklahoma: Privately printed, 1972.
  • Benge, Barbara L. The 1880 Cherokee Nation Census, Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Westminster, Maryland: Heritage Books, 2000.
  • Benge, Barbara L. The 1890 Cherokee Nation Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in 2 volumes. Westminster, Marland: Heritage Books, 2002.
  • Blankenship, Bob. Guion Miller Roll Plus. Cherokee, North Carolina: Cherokee Roots Publications.
  • Blankenship, Bob. 1924 Baker Roll. Cherokee, North Carolina, Cherokee Roots Publications.

  • Bowen, Jeff, and Dorothy Tincup Mauldin. Complete Delaware Roll of 1898. Nashville, Tenn: Flying Camp Press, 2004.
  • Bowen, Jeff. Eastern Cherokee by Blood, 1906-1910.  Volume 1. Applications 1-3000. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 2005.

  • Bowen, Jeff. Eastern Cherokee by Blood, 1906-1910. Vol. VII, Applications 21,881-26,099. Baltimore, MD: Clearfield Co., Inc., 2008.

  • Bowen, Jeff. Eastern Cherokee by Blood, 1906-1910. Vol. VIII, Applications 26,100-30,199. Baltimore, MD: Clearfield Co., Inc., 2008.

  • Bowen, Jeff. Eastern Cherokee by Blood, 1906-1910. Vol. IX, Applications 30,200-34,185. Baltimore, MD: Clearfield Co., Inc., 2008.
  • Chase, Marybelle W. Cherokee Drennen Roll of 1851. Lincoln, Arkansas: ARC Press of Cane Hill, 1994.
  • Chase, Marybelle W. Cherokee Old Settler Annuity Roll. Lincoln Arkansas: ARC Press of Cane Hill, 1993.
  • Cherokee Roots, Volume 1, Eastern Cherokee Rolls; Volume 2, Western Cherokee Rolls. Cherokee, North Carolina: Cherokee Roots Publications.
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs - Established in 1824, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was the onetime repository for a variety of historical records. However, many of these records now belong to the National Archives. Still, you can contact regional BIA offices and request what information they may still have on file. Be prepared to provide as much information as you can about your ancestors’ tribal affiliations.
  • Carter, Kent. The Dawes Commission and the Allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914. Salt Lake City:, 1999.
  • Dawes Commission Index - The Dawes Act of 1893 reapportioned land belonging to the “Five Civilized Tribes”— Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole. Members of each tribe could apply for a portion of this land after submitting proof of tribal enrollment. The Dawes Commission listed the names of those who enrolled between 1896 and 1914. Dawes Commission Index, 1898-1914 [database online]. Orem, UT:, 1997. Original data: United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Applications for Enrollment in the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington: 1992.
  • Edgington, Billy Dubois and Carol Anne Buswell. Vital Information from the Guion Miller Roll. Westminster, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1998.
  • Edmunds, R. David. Kinsmen Through Time: An Annotated Bibliography of Pottawatomie History. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1987. The bibliography has almost 1000 references.
  • Edmunds, R. David. The Pottawatomie: Keepers of the Fire. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978. Very detailed on British, U.S. and Native American relations.
  • Gannett, Henry. A Gazetteer of Indian Territory. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 1905, reprinted 2005.
  • Gordon, Beverly and Melanie Herzog. American Indian Art: The Collecting Experience. Chazen Museum of Art, 1988.
  • Gormley, Myra Vanderpool. Cherokee Connections. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1995.
  • Hampton, David Keith. Old Cherokee Families, Volume 3. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Baker Publishing Co., 1987.
  • Hill, Edward E. Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington: National Archives and Records Service, 1981.
  • The Hudson’s Bay Company -  Founded by British-Scotch fur traders in 1670, Canada’s Hudson’s Bay company preserved records for local Indian marriages and baptisms along with journals obtained from traveling fur traders (who spent a great deal of time with American and Canadian tribes). More detailed than your average government records, these documents are now housed at the Hudson’s Bay Archives in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
  • Indian Census Records
  • Indian Scout Books. The primary source for Native American family history material. The website not only lists a plethora of books and resources for the history of Native American people, it also lists exceptional sources for several particular tribes: Chickasaw, the Five Civilized Tribes, Cherokee, Great Basin and Pacific, Choctaw, Southwestern Tribes, Creek, Northeastern Tribes, Seminole, Plains and Mountains, Sioux, Southeastern Tribes, Chippewa, Ottawa, Pottawatomi, and Canadian.
  • Kappler, Charles J., editor. Indian Treaties, 1778-1883. New York: Interland Publishing, 1904, 1972 reprint.
  • Lennon, Rachal Mills. Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes: Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002.
  • Lindquist, Mark A. and Martin N. Zanger. Buried Roots and Indestructible Seeds: The Survival of American Indian Life in Story, History, and Spirit. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.
  • McClure, Tony Mack. Cherokee Proud. Sommerville, Tennessee: Chunannee Books, 1999.
  • Mooney, Thomas G. Exploring Your Cherokee Ancestry. Tahlequah, Oklahoma: Cherokee National Historical Society, 1990.
  • Native American Indian Genealogy - Indian tribal records.
  • Native American Resources. By Paul R. Sarrett, Jr.
  • The National Archives  - With its main office located in Washington D.C., the National Archives is easily the nation’s largest repository for American Indian genealogical records. Their records encompass a variety of topics ranging from Indian trade, reservation censuses, treaties, land claims and education.

  • National Archives Southwest Region in Fort Worth, Texas. The Archives branch in Ft. Worth, Texas has all of the Oklahoma Indian Records,
  • Native American Genealogy
  • Native American Genealogy. A guide from the State Historical Society of Missouri.
  • National Archives Trust Fund Board. American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington: NATFB, 1995.
  • Starr, Emmett. History of the Cherokee Indians. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004.

  • Swanton, John Reed. The Indian Tribes of North America. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off, 1952.
  • U.S. Federal Census -  Not to be confused with Indian reservation census lists, the U.S. Federal Census began incorporating American Indian communities in 1860. “Transitional” censuses (most dating from 1880 to 1890) are among the most valuable censuses available. They included Indian names alongside corresponding “American” names as well as information ranging from native languages to American Indian “blood degree.”
  • Waldman, Carl. Timelines of Native American History. Prentice-Hall, 1999.
  • Woodward, Grace Steele. The Cherokees. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.


  • Ancestors from Norway - Getting Started. By John Follesdal.

  • Flom, George T.  A History of Norwegian Immigration to the United States: From the Earliest Beginning Down to the Year 1848. Baltimore, Maryland: Reprinted for Clearfield Co. by Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002.

  • Herrick, Linda. Norwegian Research Guide. Janesville, Wisconsin: Origins, 1998.

  •  Herrick, Linda. Norwegian Research Guide. Janesville, Wisconsin: Origins, 2004.

  • Lovoll, Odd Severr. Promise Fulfilled: A Portrait of Norwegian Americans Today. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.
  • Moen, Margaret. "How to Use the Norwegian Naming System to Your Advantage." Everton's Genealogical Helper 61, 1 (January/February 2007): 58-62.

  • Naeseth, Gerhard B. Norwegian Immigrants to the United States: A Biographical Directory, 1825-1850. Madison, Wisconsin: G.B. Naeseth, 1993-
  • Norwegian Genealogy. By John Follesdal.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. The Beginner's Guide to Norwegian Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center, 1998.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. Genealogical Maps & Guide to Norwegian Parish Registers. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center, 1988.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. Scandinavian Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center. 1993.


  • Chorzempa, Rosemary A. Korzenie Polskie, Polish Roots. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2003, 1993.
  • Davis-White, Jeanne. Polish Arrivals at the Port of Baltimore, 1880-1884. Baltimore: Historyk Press, 1994.
  • Gorski, J. William. The J. William Gorski Polish Historical & Genealogical Collection at the Michigan State Library & Archives. Not for sale. This is an index to a notable collection of Polish records in the Library of Michigan.
  • Polish Genealogical Society of America
  • PolishRoots - The Polish Genealogy Source. May be the best Polish genealogical site for those researching their Polish ancestry.
  • Renkiewicz, Frank and Anne Bjorkquist. A Guide to Polish American Newspapers and Periodicals in Microform. Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 1988.


  • Glazier, Ira A. Migration from the Russian Empire: List of Passengers Arriving at New York (1875-1886). 2 volumes. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1995.


Scots-Irish (Scotch-Irish)

  • Campbell, R.G. Scotch-Irish Family Research Made Simple. Munroe Falls, Ohio: Summit Publications, 1982.

  • Kennedy, Billy. Faith and Freedom: The Scots-Irish in America. Belfast: Ambassador Productions; Greenville, South Carolina: Emerald House Group, 1999.

  • Parker, Donald Dean. Scottish and Scotch-Irish Ancestry Research. Santa Fe, New Mexico, 196?
  • Webb, James H. Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America. New York: Broadway Books, 2004.


  • Campbell, R.G. Scotch-Irish Family Research Made Simple. Munroe Falls, Ohio: Summit Publications, 1982.

  • Campey, Lucille H. After the Hector: The Scottish Pioneers of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, 1773-1852. Toronto: Natural Heritage Books, 2007. The arrival of the 'Hector' in 1773, with nearly 200 Scottish passengers, sparked a huge influx of Scots to Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. This title offers a documented and detailed account of one of the greatest early migrations of Scots to North America.

  • Cory, Kathleen B. and Leslie Hodgson.  Tracing Your Scottish Ancestry. 3rd edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004.
  • Dobson, David. Directory of Scots in the Carolinas - 1680-1830. Volume 2. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Company, 2004.
  • Dobson, David. Later Scots-Irish Links, 1725-1825. Part 2. Baltimore, Maryland, Clearfield Company, 2005 reprint.
  • Dobson, David. More Scottish Settlers, 1667-1827. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Company, Inc., 2007, 2005.
  • Dobson, David. Scots-Irish Links 1575-1725. Part 4. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Company, 2004 reprint.
  • Dobson, David. The Scottish Surnames of Colonial America.  Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Company, Inc., 2007, 2003.

  • Holton, Graham S. My Ain Folk: An Easy Guide to Scottish Family History. East Linton, Scotland: Tuckwell Press, 1997.
  • Irvine, Sherry. Scottish Ancestry: Research Methods for Family Historians. Revised 2nd edition. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2003.
  • Jonas, Linda and Paul Millar. A Genealogist's Guide to Discovering Your Scottish Ancestors: How to Find and Record Your Unique Heritage. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 2002.
  • Millett, Stephen M. The Scottish Settlers of America, The 17th and 18th Centuries. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 1998 reprint.
  • Provides searches of census and other data for Irish, British, and Scottish genealogical research.


  • Jerin, Robert. "What's In a Surname? A Study of Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian Surnames." NGS NewsMagazine 33, 1 (January/February/March 2007): 24-27.




  • Clemensson, Per and Kjell Andersson. Your Swedish Roots: A Step by Step Handbook. Provo, Utah, Ancestry, 2004.
  • Genline - Swedish Genealogy - Swedish Church Records scanned from microfilm of original church records from the 16th-20th centuries, including births, marriages, deaths, and registers showing movement in and out of the parish and an annual census or clerical survey. This archive will eventually contain over 40 million pages. Genline FamilyFinder and a test access to the archives are free - full access requires a subscription.
  • Have You Found a Swedish Ancestor? From Carina's Genealogy pages.

  • Johansson, Carl Erik. Cradled in Sweden: A Practical Help to Genealogical Research in Swedish Records. Logan, Utah: Everton Publishers, 1972.

  • Johanson, Carl-Erik. Cradled in Sweden. Rev. edition. Logan, Utah: Everton Publishers, 1985.

  • Olsson, Nils William. Swedish Passenger Arrivals in the United States, 1820-1850. Stockholm, Sweden: Schmidts Boktryckeri AB, 1995.
  • Setterdahl, Lilly. Swedish American Newspapers. Rock Island, Illinois: Augustana College Library, 1981.
  • Swedish American Genealogist
  • Swedish Ancestry Research Association of Worcester, Massachusetts.
  • Swedish Information Service - Internet Resources for Tracing Your Swedish Roots
  • The Swenson Center. Located at Augustana College, it is a national archives and research institute providing resources for the study of Swedish immigration to North America, the communities the immigrants established, and the role of the immigrants and their descendants have played in American life. This is achieved by promoting and initiating academic research in the field and by collecting and cataloging Swedish-American archival and library materials. Another major role for the Center is to assist people researching their Swedish-American family history.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. The Beginner's Guide to Swedish Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center, 1984.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. Genealogical Guidebook and Atlas of Sweden. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center, 1998.

  • Thomsen, Finn A. Scandinavian Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: Thomsen's Genealogical Center. 1993.


  • Faust, Albert B. and Gaius M. Brumbaugh. Lists of Swiss Emigrants in the Eighteenth Century to the American Colonies. Vol. 1: Zürich Canton 1734-1744, Vol. 2: Bern Canton 1706-1795 and Basel Canton 1734-1794. FHL 973 W2fa

  • Schelbert, Leo. New Glarus 1845-1970: The Making of a Swiss American Town. New Glarus, Wisconsin: Komm. Tschudi, 1970.
  • Steinemann, Ernst. A List of Eighteenth Century Emigrants form the Canton of Schaffhausen. (1734-1752). FHL 974.8 C4fg Vol. 16.
  • von Grueningen, John Paul. The Swiss in the United States. 1940. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Co., 2005 reprint. Originally published under the auspices of the Swiss American Historical Society, this book is a collection of essays on topics of interest to persons of Swiss origin, especially those whose ancestors came to America after 1840.